Components of Distance
Every ball hit has backspin. That is how the ball creates lift to stay in the air. (Exhibited below in the diagram)
The faster the spin is on the ball, the greater lift (height) your ball will have. Too much backspin doesn’t allow the ball to travel a maximum distance because the backspin prohibits the forward progress by lifting the ball up instead of flying out to your target. This process creates friction and you want to eliminate as much friction with the air as possible. For this reason, objects meant to travel great distances, like missiles and rockets are more aerodynamic, not circular with dimples. Unfortunately golf balls aren't as aerodynamic as rockets and missiles, therefore golfers have to make adjustments how we hit the ball in order to maximize the distance the ball will travel.